Studies of uniformity of 50 μm low-gain avalanche detectors at the Fermilab test beam
In this paper we report measurements of the uniformity of time resolution, signal amplitude, and charged particle detection efficiency across the sensor surface of low-gain avalanche detectors (LGAD). Comparisons of the performance of sensors with different doping concentrations and different active thicknesses are presented, as well as their temperature dependence and radiation tolerance up to 6 × 1014 n/cm2. Results were obtained at the Fermilab test beam facility using 120 GeV proton beams, and a high precision pixel tracking detector. LGAD sensors manufactured by the Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica (CNM) and Hamamatsu Photonics (HPK) were studied. The uniformity of the sensor response in pulse height before irradiation was found to have a 2% spread. The signal detection efficiency and timing resolution in the sensitive areas before irradiation were found to be 100% and 30-40 ps, respectively. A "no-response" area between pads was measured to be about 130 μm for CNM and 170 μm for HPK sensors. After a neutron fluence of 6 × 1014 n/cm2 the CNM sensor exhibits a large gain variation of up to a factor of 2.5 when comparing metalized and non-metalized sensor areas. An irradiated CNM sensor achieved a time resolution of 30 ps for the metalized area and 40 ps for the non-metalized area, while a HPK sensor irradiated to the same fluence achieved a 30 ps time resolution.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 895, 1 July 2018, 158-172